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Sunday, August 15, 2010

DRUGS: Why being abused???

Drugs drugs drugs…Whoo! I have already mentioned on my previous blog regarding drug testing that I am really opposing the usage of abused drugs that are therefore being prohibited (a must!!). Though several common foods qualify and considered as drugs like tea and coffee. However, this blog mainly focuses and very much concern with the drugs abused by many especially by the teenagers.

Drug abuse is usually defined as the frequent use of the person with the drug that may physically, emotionally and mentally damage him. Social activities are also affected. Drugs are being used with various reasons. Most often, these are consumed and used as temporary escape from life’s certainties, avoiding oneself from physical and emotional hurt.

Another is that youths involve in drugs because of peer influence and family problems such as a shattered family (in which I strongly agree and personally seen these instances from my friend’s friend), as well as other significant variables such as lack with God’s true and personal relationship and just a way of dealing with stress, anger or frustration. Others use drugs because of curiosity that they recognize taking drugs as a different, interesting or thrilling experience.

Studies revealed that most of the abused drugs are alcohol, marijuana and cocaine. And there are still many of drugs in the list. Now, let’s try to examine the drug actions and their effect on why there are growing numbers of being addictive to such.

Amphetamines and Methamphetamines
Based on my one only reference, (Bishop’s Clinical Chemistry book) amphetamine and methamphetamine are stimulants that mainly used for narcolepsy and attention deficit disorder. Amphetamine-like compounds such as ephedrine, pseudoephedrine and phenylpropanolamine are for allergy and cold medications.

*Favored action: Its favorite action of many users is that it increases a person’s mental and

physical capacity.

*Effect: restlessness, irritability, possible psychosis,

*Chronic use: tolerance and psychological dependence

*Overdose: hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, convulsions

*Tests to Identify: Immunoassay systems (screening and considered presumptive)

Liquid or Gas Chromatography (confirmation)

Are you one of them??? Is this the face that you want??


Anabolic Steroids

These are chemically related with the male sex hormone testosterone. Before, these are used as therapy for male hypogonadism but soon discovered that upon intake of these drugs may increase muscle mass and develop athletic performance.

Recent studies showed that these can be bought even without the prescription of a doctor that’s why it is freely abused by the teens.

*Favored action: Increase muscle mass and improve athletic performance

*Acute toxic effects: Physical and psychological effects

*Chronic use effects: Toxic hepatitis, accelerated atherosclerosis and abnormal aggregation of platelets (influence to stroke and myocardial infarction), enlargement of heart, ischemia of heart muscle cells which leads to death

*Males: testicular atrophy, sterility and impotence

*Females: Masculine traits, breast reduction, sterility

*Test to identify: Gas chromatography with mass spectrophotometry

Saturday, July 24, 2010

Drug Testing in Schools: Pro or Con?

While drug users expand in number, the ages that use illegal drug turns out to be younger every year. Reports show that not only in government and private workplaces but colleges and universities too, project a growing incidence of drug abuse. This is why some of lawmakers and concerned political bodies propose a mandatory drug testing of every student in an educational institution.

I, on my student point of view, being a non-user & a strong antagonist of prohibited drugs, am I favor of this test. There’s nothing to be troubled about. Then those who are found guilty of drug usage shall undergo rehabilitation. Why rehabilitation and not behind bars (if legal-aged)? Because these people are students i.e. they still get the rights as a student; they were sent to school by their parents to become educated. Therefore if these students were sent to jail, a parent would probably question the capability of the school in handling students. Or if it happens that a parent cannot send his youngster to a rehab center due to lack of financial aspects, the school may provide so, or he may be given a penalty or punishment that is in accordance to guiding the student back to becoming a drug-free being. This would be a very immense help of the school to the parents and for the student as well.

This may occur: A student who has never used prohibited drug turned out to be positive on the test due to discrepancies, tomorrow he’s a big shame without his conscious. It would result to social shock, or whatever tremor. Even worse: After the news has spread all over the campus, those who did the test to him will just simply tell that he wasn’t really positive. Now it’s a counter shock, & now they’re not to deal about the drug, but to deal about his psychological aspect.

To answer whether to become pro or con to drug testing in schools is just a short story, but it takes complications after the implementation. But if the government really hungers for drug-free education for all, no hindrances can limit its powers. *Else part of the government doesn’t want to.

Tuesday, July 13, 2010

Mercury: Out of Curiosity :D

Hi there fellas..I’m here again to do a blog regarding toxicology. And to be honest, I really don’t know what to say and what to write. I don’t even know how to start it because my mind is bothered by now. Well, this just has something to do with my private life. But I will still try my best and put my focus here for a while. May God bless me in this area.

Ok. Toxic? Oh yes. I am not new to this one. And yes again, I used to experience toxicity over and over again that’s why I really tried my best to cope with it. So hopefully, I will able to walk with our toxicology subject.

"A Blessed Me"

Sometimes, or often we are not so aware to the things that surround us that are noxious which could ruin our whole life.As I began writing, something popped-up to my thoughts. I remember my childhood innocence when I did somewhat a humor for me but very dangerous as it was. It happened when I was sick and had a terrible fever. Of course my parents never failed to give the attention, care and love for me especially those times I badly need them. To check if my fever had subsided, they gave me a thermometer and introduced it into my mouth.

Well, as a child, I didn’t really know and appreciate what that was for. I just politely obeyed them and opened my mouth. Then, they left me for a while with a thermometer on me. Alone in the room, I looked at it and I got curious with the thing inside it (for all you know, that is mercury which is very toxic). I don’t know what came into my mind why I suddenly bit and broke it. Jaran!!! Don’t worry; I wasn’t able to swallow it. If I did, I’ll never exist now.lol :) Thanks God..The mercury inside the thermometer fell on my bed then my “wonder Nanay” came to rescue me from that deadly element.

Now, as a well-informed person, let’s try to examine and study the reason behind the toxicity of the element Mercury. Another famous name for this is quicksilver or “hydrargyrum” in which Hg, its symbol was derived. 80 is its atomic number.Hydrargyrum is from the Latin Greek words “hydr”(watery); “argyros” (silver). I’m sure most of you, if not all, already know what a thermometer looks like and the mercury constituting it. Maybe you’ve been once became curious to its content when you we’re young too.:)

Mercury is a dense, silver metal and liquid at or optimum temperature and pressure which poorly conducts heat but could impartially conduct electrical energy. It could melt at about -38.83°C and may boil at a very high temperature of 356.73°C. Mercury arises in deposits all over the world typically as cinnabar or chemically known as mercuric sulfide. Cinnabar then is extremely toxic through consumption or inhalation of the grime. Whew!! Blessed as I didn’t able to consume or even inhaled it. I’m alive!!! Aha..

Mercury poisoning may also acquire from contact to any soluble formulas such as methyl mercury, gasping of mercury gas and oringesting fish contaminated with mercury.Methylmercury by the way is a hazardous intricate that is extensively known as a contaminantor toxin in water forms and rivers. (Be careful on what you drink ;0)

This element is undeniably toxic however; it has still many uses and persisted to be beneficial in the field of science applications (dental repair-amalgams, lighting, just to name a few). Also, it was being used in thermometers, sphygmomanometers, and several other scientific apparatus. But again, because of this element’s toxicity, it was decided to discontinue using it in the aforementioned apparatuses. So now I could say that children will be free from any risk or harm when using thermometer even they would like bite or break it into pieces..(haha..)

Hmm.. I think that’s all for now.. For any additional information, please bear with this links.

Try to watch this video. Click this.

Thank You!!! GodbLess.

Tuesday, June 8, 2010

"In every action there's an equal and opposite reaction"

"Whatever you do to your body is your sacred gift to our Creator."

Ok. We’re talking lives here - our body, our health and even our whole life. Each and every one of us is very much accountable in taking care of ourselves for so many reasons. One of these reasons is because our body is God’s temple. He gave us the opportunity to live and experience the magnificence of life so why wastes it with doing such things that would harm us? We should be always responsive to anything that might affect our whole being.

Physically speaking, if you feel anything that is not normally felt, then you should immediately do corresponding measures to find out what’s wrong and what tests could be taken to confirm.

For my third blog, we we’re tasked to explain what test should be taken to establish Parathyroid hormone problem such as hyperthyroidism and many others. I have already discussed how Parathyroid glands work(look on my previous blog). If there’s an abrupt decrease of calcium level, Parathyroid glands will be on their way to release its hormone, the PTH that would increase the calcium level by releasing such in the blood. An active form of Vitamin D, the calcitriol is also managed then. Whole process will be reversed if the case is an increased calcium level acted by calcitonin.

Too much is bad. Anything that is in excess is not good at all. It may lead to any serious damage.

The same thing happens when there are too much PTH levels and too low PTH levels as well that might cause destruction to the kidneys, bones and alterations to the Vitamin D levels.

A blood test specifically for PTH is done to check how much PTH do we have in our blood – too much or too low. It aids to detect hyperthyroidism cases and to look for any causes of irregular calcium levels.

A parathyroid hormone (PTH) blood test measures the level of parathyroid hormone in the blood. This test is used to help identify hyperparathyroidism or to find the cause of irregular calcium levels.

PTH test

For the test proper, there are some precautions to do before proceeding to the test itself. Fasting for about 8-10 hours is very much required. Typically, this assessment is done in the morning (prior 10 a. m) because PTH levels rapidly increase upon waking up. But still, it is best to ask the doctor for any concerns and in case of there will be any changes in the roster.After this, a health professional such as Medtech will extract blood to the patient. Then, PTH test proceeds.

Reference ranges varies depending on the laboratory itself. One to two days is expected to wait for the results to be available. Different diseases may be found out.

For high values or high level of PTH:

  • PTH growth (hyperplasia) or a parathyroid tumor

  • Decreased calcium in the blood (kidney disease, kidney failure, severe vitamin D deficiency, or an failure of the intestines to hold calcium)

  • Some types of cancer, (lung, kidney, pancreatic, or ovarian cancer)

For low values or low level of PTH

Well, the decision is now yours fellas. If there’s something wrong, run immediately and be checked up. Be mindful that everything we patronize, everything we experience, tangible or intangible are God’s consecrations most especially our whole life. We do not own our life so let’s make it a healthy living one.


Photo Credits:


Wednesday, May 26, 2010

Parathyroid Gland; Parathyroid Hormone

We know for a fact that each and every individual has different glands and hormones being secreted in the body such as hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, pancreas, ovary and even non-endocrine glands (intestine, stomach and placenta). It is essential to recognize them one after the other so that we may able to appreciate God’s magnificent works in us.

For now, let’s try to focus on the gland which is relatively familiar from the thyroid, the Parathyroid Gland which secretes parathyroid hormone (also known as “parathormone” or “parathyrin”).

Actually, we have four parathyroid glands. Parathyroid's name was derived from where it can be found- proximate or adjacent to the thyroid gland. Though these two glands are placed near to each other, they still play an exceptional role. That everything has its own purpose. It just doesn’t simply exist. And Parathyroid gland has its own persistence that is to help our body to keep a certain calcium level needed so that we could perform well as a normal individual.

The hormone secreted by this gland functions in regulating of body’s serum calcium levels. It was said that PTH uses G-protein,adenylyl cyclase second messenger system and actually was claimed to be one of the first. Regulation of serum phosphate and vitamin D synthesis are another significant task of PTH.

Wondering how are hormones being activated into our system? Simply because God is great to create a calcium-sensing receptors in the PTH that whenever a person suffers from a sudden decreased blood cacium levels, calcium-sensing receptors are on their way to activate the parathyroid hormone. Try to look at this illustration.

Reference: http://www.vivo.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/endocrine/thyroid/pth.html

Wednesday, May 12, 2010

Endocrinology, Toxicology and Drug Testing...

Personally, I was challenged when I knew that our Clinical Chemistry 3 is almost all about blogging regarding different topics on this subject. I was challenged because doing blogs and writing such as this is not my field of interest. Yes, I must simply say that I’m not good at blogging at all..But for the sake of having a good grade and as a requirement in our subject, I’ll start to learn and love blogging..lol :) hOpefully..

For our first task, that is to define the three sub-topics of Clinical Chemistry 3 namely: Endocrinology, Toxicology and Drug Testing...


As far as I am concerned, endocrinology deals with different hormones in the body as a part of human developmental stages. Such hormones have their own function in which they regulate so many of the biochemical processes in the human body. Also, it is a great help in our today’s predicament because through endocrinology, its easier for us to know or to detect a certain disease or problem within our system. Hormonal change is an example that could lead to several mental illnesses.

In our very modern world, many hormonal kits are now being utilized for easier, accurate and faster results. Pregnancy kit is an example using immunoassay procedure just to name a few. Endocrinology really has a big role and much significance.


Toxic. A very popular term and expression almost always being heard to med tech students like us.

Toxic because you are bombarded with many homeworks, projects, quizzes every now and then and of course the never-ending manuals to finish. Well, that's the way it should be. You just have to embrace and accept it with all your heart. Because if there's no toxicity, there's no thrill being a med tech.

um, actually that's the way i define toxicology. Knowing the real definition, it has something to do with poisons. Poisonous materials that could dangerously affect our whole body and could lead us to death.. But on the positive aspect, different treatments are being studied and developed to escape from these toxicity.

Drug Testing

From the word itself "drug testing", it is the process of determining a certain drug in the person's body. In here, biological specimens such as hair, urine, blood, saliva and sweat are helpful tools to detect drugs. It is applicable or required to take this test for pre-employment purposes. Another use of this test is for diagnostics and even in post-incident cases.

That's it... Pagpasensyahan nyo nlang po if may mga wrong grammars ako..hehe..
I'll try my best to improve..

Anyway, I think this will be my training background.. =) GodbLess.